Mongolian territory is divided into 21 provinces and a capital city Ulaanbaatar. The modern provinces were established since 1921. Secondary subdivisions outside Ulaanbaatar are called "sum" in 2006 and Mongolia had 331 sums. Sums are further subdivided into "bag". While sums always have a permanent settlement as administrative center, many bags do not. Ulaanbaatar is divided into nine districts, which are further subdivided into "khoroo". Khoroo most often translated as subdistrict or microdistrict. The capital, Ulaanbaatar, is governed as an independent provincial municipality separate from Tuv Province, in which it is located. During the Qing Dynasty, the territory of Mongolia was divided into the Tsetsen Khan, Tusheet khan, Sain Noyon Khan, and Zasagt Khan provinces plus the Khovd area. The northern border to Russia was guarded by a watch post area.