Mongolian people have always valued education over other attributes and have habitually made it their priority to educate their children. Traditionally, Mongolian education was concentrated in the Buddhist monasteries and only limited to monks. Since 1921, modern Mongolian education has reflection of its dependence on the USSR. On the one hand, elementary education is universal and free, with the result that Mongolia boasts a literacy rate of between 80% and 90%. In the rural areas where there are no schools, children are often brought to the provincial capital to stay in boarding schools, returning home only for two weeks vacation during winter. The system in place for lower-level education in Mongolia has been similar to the one used during communist times, though the government has begun reforms to expand it. Primary educational system is four years of compulsory schooling followed by a further four years of compulsory lower-secondary education. First Mongolian higher educational institution, the National University of Mongolia was founded in 1942 with three faculties. In the last 20 years, private universities have started to be established mostly focusing economics, languages and business administration.