The thirteenth century accomplishments of Chinggis Khaan in conquering a swath of the world from modern day Korea to southern Russia and in invading deep into Europe, and the cultural achievements of his grandson, Khublai khan, in China are well-known in world history.
During the late 12th century, a tribal chief named Temujin eventually merged the Mongol tribes. In 1206, Temujin carried the title Chinggis Khan and established the Mongol empire. His kingdom, the largest contiguous land empire and second largest overall in the world after the British Empire, launched numerous wars and military battles across Asia. When Chinggis Khan died in 1227, the Mongol Empire was divided into 4 kingdoms. His grandson Khublai Khan ruled one of the kingdoms, comprising of China and homeland Mongol. He established his capital in modern Beijing but after a century it was overthrew by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. Though famous for its ruthlessness towards enemies, the Mongolian Empire was known to be very tolerant towards the different beliefs of its occupied societies. It is said that at the court of the Mongol Khans, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, Jewish, Confucian, and other religious leaders used to sit and exchange ideas with one another and the local Shamans and healers. After the decline of the empire, in the 14th century, Mongolia was ruled by the Manchu dynasty of Qing. Ironically, the Manchu never had conquered Mongolia, as the Mongols themselves invited the Manchu to protect them from attacks initiated by western clans.
In 1911, Mongolia proclaimed independence from the Qing Dynasty. The Russians had a short rule though the leadership of "Blood" Baron Ungern and the religious leader Bogd Khan. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared. For the next 70 years Mongolia was satellite country to the Soviet Union. Between 1930 and 1940 at least one third of the male population of Mongolia was slaughtered by order of the communist party in Moscow. On the other hand, the Soviet occupation also brought to Mongolia, with its massive resources, infrastructure for transportation, communication and civil services such as education and health in Mongolia.